The concept of tragic conflict: between challenge and hope | Guillermo Lariguet - sovet4ik.info
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It seems impossible to completely eradicate the possibility of tragic conflicts arising between values which are sometimes incommensurable. The first one is related to the historical or cultural origin of tragedy as a way to tackle through literature9 deep philosophical problems freedom, value conflicts, destruction, the unpredictable, the unmanageable, the scope of responsibility either for doing something or for omitting to do it, etc.
The second aspect is not linked to an idiosyncratic or temporal question, but to a 4 Berlin, Sartre,21 and subsequent. In the present research project I emphasize the latter aspect, even though I have also found some inspiration in the former.
For the moment, however, let us consider the first aspect. According to this, concern about the idea of tragic conflict can be traced back not only to the great Greek tragedians but also to ancient philosophers. For instance, Anaximander —philosopher who lived between the 7th and 8th century B.Existencialismo - Jean Paul Sartre - Filosofía - Educatina
I am citing Anaximander with a conceptual purpose related to what I referred to as the second aspect of tragic conflicts, since he intuitively knows —though in a diffuse and abstract way— some features commonly associated with the idea of tragic conflict.
Such characteristics appear in a well-known passage where he holds that: In ancient times, Dionysus, the emblematic god of tragedy was known as Zagreus: That is to say, conflicts which had a tragic component were associated with a set of closely related ideas: Essentially, this kind of ideas underlies contemporary stances such as those defended by Nagel The reason to allow them was related to a highly valued atavistic tradition.
However, the reason to forbid them was that such rites clashed with work ethics and stability in the Greek world.
Next, I would like to deal with the ideas of sacrifice and inevitable evil, both of which are paradigmatic features of tragic conflicts. If A is chosen, B will be sacrificed, and vice versa. Sacrifice of a requirable alternative happens through the so-called tragic choice, label arising from the fact that a choice between evils must be made. Such alternative involves a loss, e. Thus in tragic conflicts, unlike in simple value conflicts, there is no possibility of a full solution. However, this solution involves sacrificing something valuable or significant.
This statement could be formulated in terms of a paradox: However, I think that an important intuition about the phenomenology of tragic conflicts is that there is not just one type of sacrifice at stake.
First of all, sacrifice can be considered such with respect to a value or a value system. In the second place, sacrifice can take two forms which can be distinguished: For Atienza this explains that a crucial difference between difficult and tragic cases is the following: I am referring to the discarded valuable alternative, which is independent of the contingent fact that an agent feels sorry for not having chosen it.
Such threshold can be defined on the basis of the existence of certain values which demand either no sacrifice at all or a virtually insignificant sacrifice. I will make myself clear. In order to further clarify this, I will return to the example of normally opposing positions of value on the issue of abortion. I dare to defend these solutions as the most desirable ones, but precisely because of this, the most exquisitely difficult to reach in tragic conflicts.
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To clarify this statement I will offer a further example. A well-known assumption of conflict is the tension between justice qua distribution and justice qua recognition. While the former demands measures tending to erase social and economic inequalities, the latter demands measures which tend to stress differences cultural, sexual, ethnic etc.
She concludes that the best that could be attained would be a solution which minimized or softened the conflict. By opting for A, the agent will sacrifice B and vice versa. By choosing A, the agent will violate the demand derived from B and vice versa. The second sense is that violation of a duty or obligation can bring about regrettable consequences. Regarding the first sense violation of a duty or obligation 21 I would say that the connection between tragic conflicts and inevitable evil is a conceptual one, since every time conflict occurs the agent is faced with a situation where for conceptual reasons which lie in the very structure of the conflict, there is no alternative which can prevent him from violating some demandable obligation.
With regard to the second sense regrettable consequence its connection with tragic conflicts may, perhaps, be empirical. In order to see things in this way, I tentatively assume the distinction between two types of connections: Most —if not all— situations of tragic conflict cause regrettable consequences, but sometimes an analysis of this dimension is not necessary.
In addition to the previous clarification, it is necessary to point out that the connection between tragic conflicts and regrettable consequences is not based on purely empirical aspects, since there are other elements at stake. The study of this connection depends to a larger extent on the level of analysis that each case require.
At a certain level it is possible that various axiological considerations must be made on what is won or lost by violating one obligation or the other. There are many possible readings of this challenge. I will briefly focus on three of them. The Hyper-rationalist Reading A first reading could be to deny the challenge itself.
Denial can take two forms: An example of the latter are utilitarian stances which believe in the possibility of solving conflicts24 by arranging alternatives according to a hyper value, such as general happiness. The Irrationalist Reading While underestimated by the hyper-rationalist reading, the challenge of tragic conflicts is exacerbated by the irrationalist reading.
There are various ways to assume an irrationalist solution to tragic conflicts.
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This stance is represented in the field of political philosophy and law by Duncan Kennedy, an author who is clearly concerned about the existence of tragic conflicts. From a Sartrean viewpoint, Kennedy25 advocates choosing a rather subjectivist or decisionist solution to the tragic conflicts that a judge may have to deal with.
The Moderate Rationalist Reading The moderate rationalist reading, which is the one I personally support, does not reject the ideal commitment26 to attempting the search for rational solutions to tragic conflicts.
This statement does not entail a contradiction in its terms. In my version of the story it is feasible to assert, at the same time, that answers to tragic conflicts must be justified insofar as it is possible and that 24 See McConnell, In my own words, the tragic point is that this search for reasons is compatible with acknowledging the extreme or all-or-nothing sacrifice that a valuable alternative entails.
In any case, I support the regulatory ideal of struggling against lazy reason, even if I am aware of the enormous difficulties in finding solutions which overcome conflicts and I acknowledge as empirical truth the existence of solutions involving extreme or minimizing sacrifice for most cases. Naturally, the previous assertion rules out excludes an irrationalist stance.
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